Correlates, predictors and reference values of repetitive squat performance in apparently healthy Nigerians

Chidozie E. Mbada 1,2 , Odesanmi Fatai 1 , Opeyemi A. Idowu 3 , Olubusola E. Johnson1
1 Department of Medical Rehabilitation, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
2 African Population and Health Research Center, Nairobi, Kenya
3 Department of Physiotherapy, School of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria


Introduction. Comparing squatting performance of patients with knee pathologies with normative values may help determine the extent of impairment, inform plan for appropriate intervention and also serve as outcome measure. However, dearth of reference values on squatting performance is a significant limitation. This study provides correlates, predictors and reference ranges for repetitive squatting performance (RSP) in apparently healthy Nigerians.
Material and Methods. Four hundred and forty-five consenting individuals, whose ages ranged between 18 and 54 years, completed the study. Squatting performance was assessed using repetitive squatting test. Data were also obtained on socio-demographics and anthropometric variables. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Alpha level was set at p<0.05.
Results. The mean age and RSP of the participants were 25.2±8.0years and 29.5±11.1reps respectively. Male participants had significantly higher RSP than the females (32.9±10.74 vs. 25.3±10.12 reps; p<0.05). Participants in the > 40yrs age group had the least RSP (21.9±8.51 reps). RSP was significant but inversely correlated with age (r = -0.328; p=0.001), weight and the measures of adiposity (p<0.05). However, RSP was directly correlated with height, lean body mass and trunk length (p<0.05). Age and the anthropometric variables were significant predictors of RSP at 85% variability without gender bias (p<0.05).
Conclusion. This study established a set of reference values for repetitive squatting performance in healthy Nigerians. RSP was significantly higher in male individuals. Older age and high level of adiposity were associated with lower RSP without gender bias. Age and anthropometric parameters were significant predictors of RSP.

Key words:

squatting, repetitive squat test, reference values.

Full article:

Correlates, predictors and reference values of repetitive squat performance in apparently healthy Nigerians


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