A study evaluating the prevalence of female athlete triad and its risk factors
among elite athletes and non-athletes

Singh Amrinder, Sachdeva Manisha, Shenoy Shweta, Sandhu Jaspal Singh
Faculty of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University Amritsar, Punjab, India


Research has found that females are at risk of developing the female athlete triad at any level of activity. The incidence of risk of female athlete triad in various sports has not been well documented and limited evidences are postulated for the same among Indian population. So, the purpose of the study is to evaluate the risk of female athlete triad among elite female athletes of various sports.

Material and Method. The subjects of this study were 200 athletes of various sports, and 100 non-athletes without any orthopedic, respiratory or cardiovascular system problems. The instruments used in this study included the EAT-26, menstrual cycle history questionnaire, osteoporosis questionnaire, and time spent in exercise questionnaire. All female athlete participants were given the surveys on field after their scheduled conditioning time. The non-athletes were given the surveys in their class. All participants, athletes and nonathletes, were instructed to take the surveys home and complete them in private. The surveys were then picked up by the researcher a week later at the same location the surveys were administered.

Results. For a female being at risk of disordered eating, menstrual cycle dysfunction, or osteoporosis it was found: out of the 200 athletes and 100 athletes, 49 & 21 were at risk of disordered eating, 48 & 6 had irregular menstrual cycles, and 51 & 18 were at risk of osteoporosis respectively. The prevalence rate of the triad was 3.5% in the athletic population as there were 7 participants who had all the three components of female athlete triad.

Conclusion. The presence of the risk factors of female athlete triad was found in the both the groups hence, educating the females about the risk factors has the potential to prevent several components, therefore, improving health and averting long-term complications.

Key words:

female athletes, amenorrhea, disordered eating, osteoporosis, lean sports

Full article:

A study evaluating the prevalence of female athlete triad and its risk factors among elite athletes and non-athletes


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