TECHNOGYM FITNESS EQUIPMENT
Cecchinelli, Simonetta Senni, Benvenuti Paolo, Silvano Zanuso
Medical-Scientific Research Department Gambettola, Italy
The assessment of the physical
fitness is of paramount importance in sport medicine as well as in
clinical setting. The maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) measurement
can be used to evaluate the efficiency of the subject's cardiovascular
system. The VO2 max is an expression of the organism's maximum capacity
to take in and use oxygen per unit of time. The main factors that
influence this value can be broken down into central factors,
responsible for oxygen intake and transport, and peripheral factors ,
responsible for the cellular use of oxygen. The VO2 max can be
influenced by the level and type of workout, gender (higher values for
men) and age, and differs according to which muscle groups are used
during the test. Checking the VO 2 max periodically gives continuous
feedback on the effects of the training program and the subject's level
of adaptation to the workload.
Maximum aerobic power can be
measured directly, using sophisticated and costly equipment that
continuously monitors oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production,
pulmonary ventilation and heart rate (HR). The test method is to
increase workloads step by step until the subject is completely
exhausted. It is, therefore, a maximum test calling for a high level of
commitment from the subject, and requires highly specialized personnel.
The VO2 max is calculated either as an absolute value (l/min) or in
relation to the subject's body weight (ml/min/kg).
alternative, the maximum aerobic power can be measured indirectly, the
correlation between VO 2 and heart rate has led to the development of
indirect methods that require simple, less costly and therefore more
widely accessible equipment. These methods are useful for reliable,
large-scale checking of aerobic metabolism efficiency as measured in
health and fitness clubs
In a physical exercise of increasing
intensity, the relationship between the cardiac output trend (Q), which
represents the quantity of blood the heart pumps into circulation per
unit of time (minute), and the workload, or VO2, is generally linear.
The cardiac output is given by the product of the systolic output (SO),
which represents the quantity of blood that the heart pumps into
circulation with each beat, and the heart rate: Q = SO*HR
the VO2 = Q X (CaO2 - CvO2), the VO2 presents a linear correlation with
The CPR (Constant Pulse Rate) system, which
adjusts the workload to keep the heart rate constant, has also led to
the development of new methods of testing VO2 max and new ways of
programming cardiovascular training. The most used protocols will be
analysed. (Bruce, Balke, Anstrand, Naughton, ACSM metabolic equation).
Practical indirect test will be carried out on treadmill and bike.